Showing posts from March, 2019


Forces beneath the Earth In the Earth's crust there are different movements and tensions, which cause changes in the Earth's crust. Most of the landforms such as mountains, plateaus, plains and valleys are creation of internal process below the Earth's surface. The landforms on the surface are caused by the forces which are divided on the basis of their sources of origin into two categories ---
Internal forces External forces  Endogenic forces or Internal force : Forces operating beneath the Earth are called Endogenic forces. They are also called Tectonic movements. The internal forces of the Earth are responsible for the formation of various types of landforms, hence they are called constructive forces. Folding and Faulting are internal forces.
The endogenic movements are devided into two types on the basis of their intensity - Diastrophic forcesSudden forces
Diastrophic forces - It includes Vertical and Horizontal movements which are caused by the forces working beneath th…

THE REVOLT OF 1857 (1857 का विद्रोह)

The Revolt of 1857
There was no aspect of public life which was untouched or unexploited by the colonial power. It completely disrupted the traditional economy. The colonial regime hurt the religious sentiments of both the Hindus and Muslims in India and activities  of Christian missionaries created suspicion. Politically, the arrogance and dictatorial attitude of Lord Dalhousie and his predecessors shocked the traditional rulers of the country. Annexation  policy  made resentment in all over the country. The annexation of Awadh for misgovernment was the most dangerous steps which put the government in bad faith. The conditions of Indian sepoys, employed in the British army, were heinous and unbearable. Slightest pretext was enough to play havoc , and this was supplied by the introduction of greased cartridges. The greased cartridges alone would not have,  however, sufficed to provoke such an explosion,  there was mix of political,  social ,economic as well as religious factors.

What is NPT ( Non- proliferation Treaty ).

Non - proliferation Treaty  NPT is a major non- proliferation instrument to check the spread of nuclear weapons and technology to those countries which do not possess the same. The most important provision of the treaty is that those countries which have not acceded to the treaty are prohibited from any international trade of nuclear material and technology even for the purpose of peaceful use of nuclear energy. 
The NPT has a preamble and 11 articles and entered into force on March 5, 1970. The preamble of the treaty focuses on the prevention of dissemination of nuclear weapons to avoid the danger of nuclear war. However,  it full exchange of information,  technology and material among parties to the treaty for the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
The brief description of the provisions of different articles of the treaty are given below :
Article- 1  Nuclear weapon state parties undertake not to transfer any nuclear weapon technology,  weapons or explosive materials to any non-  nuc…


First Anglo- Maratha War Peshwa Madhav Rao which succeed his father Peshwa Balaji Rao in 1761 and who ranks among the  great Peshwa who maintained unity among Marathas chief and nobles. He very soon recovered the power and prestige of the Marathas which they lost in the third Battle of Panipat. He came into contact with the English and was conscious of their military efficiency,  but he didn’t attach much value to them and regarded them as an insignificant factor in the Indian policies. The British became conscious of the Marathas in the fulfillment of their ambition of building an empire in India and therefore were keen to weaken their power at the earliest opportunity.  They got their opportunity very soon after the death and the Peshwa Madhav Rao in 1772.  Their attempt to repeat the exploits of their countrymen in Madras and Bengal involved them in a long war with the Marathas from 1775 to 1782,  known  as the FirstAnglo-MarathaWar.

What is Treaty of Salbai ? After first Anglo-Ma…


Historical background for the Battle of Buxar Mir Jafarsoon realized that it was impossible to meet the full demands of the company and its officials who began to criticize the Nawab for his inability to fulfill their expectations.  Consequently,  1760 they forced him to in favour of his son - in - law , Mir Qasim , who rewarded British by granting them the zamindari of the districts of Burdwan , Midnapore and Chittagong. Mir Qasim however belied the English hopes and soon emerged as a threat to their very position  and plans in Bengal.

The primary cause of the Battle of Buxar was therefore the conflict between the English and the Nawab for the sovereign power of Bengal. The misuse of the farman of 1717 and the Dastakby the British and the consequent abolition of all duties on internal trade by the Nawab was a contributory factors . Mir Qasim took a drastic step of abolishing all duties on internal trade , thus giving his own subjects a concessions that the English had seized by forc…



In a major medical breakthrough which may enormously help in prevention of spread of HIV among women, the scientists have cracked the mystery as to how AIDS virus finds its way into the female reproductive tract. The scientist have claimed to have  resolved the mystery how AIDS virus crosses epithelial cells which keep out infection and thus infects women's reproductive tract. In the words of researchers -" what it (HIV virus) does is that it makes the electrical barriers resistance of epithelial cells decrease and thus cross the barriers. "

The study which was published in a journal further reveals that HIV breaks down the protective mucosal barrier in the intestinal and the female genital tract , allowing the virus to cross during intercourse. The research further discloses that the breakdown appears ro be due to inflammatory factors produced by epithelial cells and gives HIV and other microbes access to inside the body.

The team of the…


Battle of Plassey The British Company had obtained valuable privileges in 1717 under a royal farman of the Mughal Emperor which had granted the company the freedom to export and import their goods in Bengal without paying taxes and the right to issue Dastaks for the movement of such goods. The company's servants were also permitted to trade but were not covered by this farman. All the nawabs of Bengal from Murshid Quli Khan to Alivardi Khan had objected to the English misinterpretation of farman of 1717. But matters came to head in 1756 when Siraj-ud-Daula succeeded to the throne.

The spark was provided by the fortifications of Calcutta by the British without the prior permission of the Nawab and their refusal to demolish the fortification when ordered by the Nawab. Siraj-ud-Daula was willing to let the Europeans remain as merchants and not as masters. He ordered both the English and French to demolish their fortification at Calcutta and chandranagore and to desist from fighting…


What is Angiography ?  Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique to visualize the inside or lumen of the blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the heart's arteries, veins and chambers. This is traditionally done by using X-ray-based techniques such as fluoroscopy to inject a radio-opaque contrast agent into the blood vessel and imaging.The word itself comes from the Greek word  angeion , “ vessel “ and graphein , “ to write or “ record ”. An angiograph or more commonly an "angiogram" is called the film or image of the blood vessels.

Types of angiography

Actually  the term angiography is strictly defined as projectional x-rays, the term has been applied to new vascular imaging techniques such as CT angiography and MR angiography.

CT angiography
 CT angiography is a Computed Tomography angiography ( CTA )  technique used to visualize arterial and venous vessels throughout the body . This ranges from brain to arteries that carry…


British Conquest of India
During the heyday of Mughal rule a number of europeans came to India gor trading. The Europeans were well organized as joint stock companies and set up their trading centres called factories in different regions of India. The Anglo-French trade rivalry and their subsequent attempt to interfere in the political affairs of India culminated into thw Carnatics qars. By the end of third carnatic the French were no longer a threat to the British.
           In the meanwhile the political situation was undergoing drastic changes in another important region of India,viz Bengal, which was one of the most fertile and prosperous parts of India. Siraj-ud-Daula, the Bengal nawab decided to take actions against the British and the Battle of Plassey (1757) took place with latter as victor. The subsequent activities of the British led to a final showdown in the form of their victory in Battle of Buxar (1764) , making them the real masters of Bengal , though formal authoriti…

Yoga : A way of life

Short essay on Yoga : A way of life

Yoga is a way of life. It is virtually concerned with maintaining a state of equanimity af all cost.The yoga emphasis the importance of mind remaining calm.
The fundamental  idea of yoga is to unite the Atma or individual soul with the Parmatma or the universal soul. In sanskrit yoga stands for "union".  The aim is to attain this union with the eternal self with the help of certain mental and physical exercises .  Patanjali the founder and father of yoga systematized the various yogic practices and traditions of his time by encapsulating them in his Yogasutra.

There are eight method of achieving itYamas or eternal vows,Niyamas or observations, Yogasanas or yoga postures,Pranayama or breath control exercises, Pratyahara or withdrawal of the senses from distraction of the outside world,Dharana or concentration on an object,place or subject,Dhyana or meditation  and Samadhi or the ultimate stage of yoga meditation. Patanjali's collection…