BATTLE OF BUXAR
Historical background for the Battle of Buxar
Mir Jafar soon realized that it was impossible to meet the full demands of the company and its officials who began to criticize the Nawab for his inability to fulfill their expectations. Consequently, 1760 they forced him to in favour of his son - in - law , Mir Qasim , who rewarded British by granting them the zamindari of the districts of Burdwan , Midnapore and Chittagong. Mir Qasim however belied the English hopes and soon emerged as a threat to their very position and plans in Bengal.
The primary cause of the Battle of Buxar was therefore the conflict between the English and the Nawab for the sovereign power of Bengal. The misuse of the farman of 1717 and the Dastak by the British and the consequent abolition of all duties on internal trade by the Nawab was a contributory factors . Mir Qasim took a drastic step of abolishing all duties on internal trade , thus giving his own subjects a concessions that the English had seized by force. But the alien merchants were no longer in a mood to tolerate equally between themselves and Indians. Mir Qasim was defeated in a series of battles in 1764 and fled to Awadh, where he formed an alliance with Suja - ud - daula and Shah Alam II , the Mughal Emperor and The forces of the three Allies clashed with the company's army at Buxar in October 1764 and were thoroughly routed.
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Consequences of the Battle of Buxar
- The Battle of Buxar was one of the most decisive battles in Indian history, for it demonstrated the superiority of English arms over the combined forces of two of the major Indian powers , Bengal and Avadh.
- The battle firmly established the British as the masters of Bengal ,Bihar and Orissa.
- From Shah Alam II, who was still the titular head of the Mughal Empire , the company secured the Diwani ( the right to collect revenue) of Bengal , Bihar and Orissa.
- On Mir Jafar's death in 1765 , they put his second son Nizam- ud - daula on the throne and extracted a treaty.
- Now the Nawab was to required to disband most of his army and to administer Bengal through a Deputy Subedar who was to be nominated by the company and could not be dismissed without its approval.
- The Nawab of Avadh was made to pay a war indemnity of five million rupees to the company .
- Further there signed an alliance by which the company promised to support the Nawab against any outside attack provided he paid for the services of the troops sent to his aid .
- The alliance made the Nawab a dependent of the company. The British had decided to consolidate their acquisitionof Bengal and to use Avadh as a buffer state between their possession and the Marathas.
Conquest of Sindh :
The conquest and annexation of Sindh by the British was partly due to the commercial advantages of River Indus. It was also caused by the growing Anglo-Russian rivalry in Europe and Asia and the consequent British fears Russia might attack India through Afghanistan or Persia.
Sind was opened to British trade by a treaty signed in 1832 between the Amirs of Sindh and the British. Soon after the chiefs of Sindh , known as Amirs were made to sign Subsidiary treaties in 1839. By these treaties , Sindh virtually passed into the hands of the English. The Amirs were left with no independent power and could no longer work in cooperation with each others. The Amirs were not recognized by the English . Sindh was finally annexed in 1843 after a brief campaign by Sir Charles Napier.